Tag Archives: Sawtelle Institute of Japan

Monday Morning With Jack Fujimoto

May 10, 2015

Dr. Jack Fujimoto

Dr. Jack Fujimoto

By: Joel Epstein*

One of the best things about writing about Los Angeles and the West is the interesting people I get to meet and talk with about their lives. Today was no exception.

This morning I had the pleasure of meeting Dr. Jack Fujimoto, a longtime resident of Sawtelle Japantown in West LA.

Sitting in a quiet corner at the back of Teddy’s Cafe at Pico and Bundy, Dr. Fujimoto generously shared his life story and wisdom in a free ranging conversation about Japanese Americans, life in the West and change.

At 87, Dr. Fujimoto is a picture of the clear minded octogenarian I hope to be someday. Born in 1928, Masakazu Jack Fujimoto was the first Asian American to serve as president of a major college or university in the mainland U.S. But as he shared with me, the job didn’t come easy, given the subtle discrimination that was part and parcel of the times in 1977 when he became president of Sacramento City College.

“I was in Kauai on vacation with my family when this guy from Sacramento called and said, ‘Would you like to be considered for the presidency?’ It was clear he wanted me to say no. But I came back from Kauai and interviewed and then interviewed again, and finally, I got a call from the only African American on the Board and he said, it’s yours.”

In spite of the subtle discrimination he experience in the hiring process, Jack is proud of what he achieved during his time at Sacramento City College. He points proudly to his support for gays and lesbians at the school (at a time when this was uncommon) and to a program he started for learning disabled students.

Born in National City to an Issei father and Nisei mother, Jack calls himself a second generation and a half Nisei. The oldest of six children, he grew up in the Encinitas and Cardiff areas where his father was a truck crop farmer selling peppers, tomatoes and lettuce. “He was basically a sharecropper because he couldn’t own land since he wasn’t a citizen.” One of only about a dozen Japanese Americans in his high school, Jack’s youth was rudely interrupted by Executive Order 9066.

The order which prescribed certain areas of the U.S. as military zones, was signed by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt on February 19, 1942. It forced some 120,000 Japanese and Japanese Americans into internment at ten concentration camps in the interior in the West. “The order was signed February 19th and by May 19th I was in Poston Camp in Arizona. Poston was probably the largest of the camps. We were allowed to carry only two bags of hand luggage. What would you take, I used to ask my students? I was 13 years old. It was terribly traumatic.”

“At Poston the camp school was terrible. I had a teacher who we called Prune Face. She looked like a cartoon character from the time. But I got a good Japanese education and I also worked part-time at the camp in the motor pool, in the machine shop and sometimes we went off camp to Parker. I was pretty big and could take 60 pound blocks of ice and transfer the ice from  the train to semi-trucks that hauled the ice to Poston for refrigeration purposes. Another year I worked in agriculture picking watermelons. The best part was when you picked a watermelon and dropped it and got to eat it.”

Jack told me that there was some resistance to Executive Order 9066 from people like Fred Korematsu. And there was a lot of quiet, unsung resistance from those in the camps.

As much as he has been through, for Jack, one of the most important events in his life was “when my old man said I don’t expect you to follow me into farming. I wanted to be a teacher and I would have been a terrible farmer. I couldn’t make a living at it. I can teach but I can’t farm or garden.”

Despite his experience interned at Camp Poston from 1942 to 1945, Jack volunteered to serve in the U.S. military during the Korean War. After studying Japanese at the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center in Monterey, and at a counter intelligence school in Baltimore, Jack traveled to Japan where he served from April 1950 to July 1952. “Those were terrible times, when North Korea invaded the south,” he told me. “I was one of the privileged ones, out of a unit of 15, I was able to stay in Japan during the war. I’d have had my tail shot off, the North Koreans decimated entire companies of soldiers.”

Japanese Institute of Sawtelle

Japanese Institute of Sawtelle (Photo by SawtelleJapantown.com)

In 1952, Jack returned to California and settled in Sawtelle. “Under the McCarran-Walter Act my parents got naturalized so they could buy property. The tanomoshikō, a sort of credit union (or traditional Japanese mutual financial assistance group) helped a lot. Restrictive covenants were still in place and realtors would be careful what they showed you. When we were relocated to Poston, my parents left their house and everything to a Mexican employee. They lost everything. Other people knew to put their house in trust with the banks or groups like the Red Cross which took over the Japanese Institute of Sawtelle during the Executive Order. When I was in high school in Encinitas I was to be the star of the high school play. I lost that, but think about the guys who were at Berkeley and Stanford, a semester away from graduating, and they couldn’t graduate. It was traumatic for the young people. For everyone.”

About resistance to the Executive Order, Jack said “The Japanese American Citizen League told us to go to the camps. Others said no. Some moved east of Highway 99 but then they had to move again. Lots of Issei parents had no desire to stay in the U.S. Of the 120,000 who were interned the government probably paid reparations to only about 50,000 or 60,000 alive in 1990 (others put the figure at $1.6 billion in reparations to 82,219 Japanese Americans who had been interned and their heirs).”

Sawtelle Japantown Sign

Sawtelle Japantown Sign (Photo by SawtelleJapantown.com)

Regarding Sawtelle Japantown, Jack told me that for a long time he had thought about all of these Nisei and Sansei and the stories they have to tell about their lives in the neighborhood, in the camps and beyond. This idea gave birth to the oral history project at the Japanese Institute of Sawtelle. “Then last year some of the younger people said let’s create a [virtual presence for Sawtelle Japantown] that recognizes the historic Japanese character of the area.” Concurrently the group sought City Council recognition of the area bounded by Santa Monica Boulevard to the north, Pico Boulevard to the south, Centinela Avenue to the west and the 405 freeway to the east as “Sawtelle Japantown.” On February 25, 2015, the Council unanimously approved the designation.

With all the change taking place in Sawtelle Japantown, Jack hopes to see further efforts to recognize throughout the neighborhood, the contributions and experiences of Japanese Americans. One idea is to create a monument at the Japanese Institute of Sawtelle that commemorates the spot from which Japanese and Japanese Americans were gathered in 1942 for their transfer to the internment camp at Manzanar.

Discussing the transformation of popular Sawtelle Japantown, Jack points to the increased densification and the decline of Japanese American institutions like Troop 39 of the Boy Scouts of America and the Bay Cities Gardeners’ Association. It is also no secret that there are plans to build housing on the Japanese Institute of Sawtelle site as well as two adjacent properties. All the more reason, in Jack’s view, for the community to push for a memorial to the deportees of Executive Order 9066, and preservation and beautification efforts like the planting of cherry blossoms (sakura) along Sawtelle Boulevard. As Jack relates in his 2007 book on Sawtelle Japantown, it was local residents like Miyoko Shimahara who in 1994 initiated the campaign to import sakura for the beautification of Stoner Park.

I don’t always love Mondays but Jack Fujimoto made this one special. Thank you Jack for sharing your story and for the history lesson.

*Contributing writer Joel Epstein is a writer and communications strategist for business, government and non-profit clients. His writing focuses on Los Angeles and the West. For more about Joel visit joelepstein.com.

Dr. Fujimoto interviewed at the Sawtelle Japantown renaming celebration

Dr. Fujimoto interviewed at the Sawtelle Japantown renaming celebration (photo by SawtelleJapantown.com)

Dr. Fujimoto with West Los Angeles Neighborhood Chair Jay Handal

Dr. Fujimoto with West Los Angeles Neighborhood Council Chair Jay Handal at the Sawtelle Japantown Renaming Celebration (photo by SawtelleJapantown.com)

富士本ジャック氏と過ごした月曜日の朝

ジョエル エプスタイン

ロスアンジェルスやウエストサイドについて書く一番好いことは色々な人と出会い彼らの人生について語りあえることだ。今日も例外ではない。

今朝は長い間ウエストサイドのソーテルジャパンタウンに在住する富士本ジャック博士にお目にかかった。

ピコとバンデイの角にあるテデイズカフェ(Teddy”sCafe)の静かなコーナーで日系アメリカ人や ウエストサイドの生活と変遷の人生の物語と知恵を自由に聞かせてくれた。

87歳の富士本博士はしっかりした心を持った私がいつかなりたい八十代だ。1928年生まれの富士本博士は初めてのアメリカ本土主要大学のアジア系 学長となった人だ。彼がサクラメントシティカレッジの学長になった1977年頃は希薄な差別が有り学長職は簡単に手に入らなかった。

カウアイ島で家族と休暇旅行中サクラメントの男性から電話が有り学長候補になりたいかと聞かれたが彼は私にノーと言って欲しかったようだ。しかし私は休暇から戻りインタビューを受け続け最終的には唯一の黒人の役員からの電話で仕事が決まった。

希薄な偏見経験の中でも博士はサクラメントシテイカレッジ(Sacramento City College)で達成した事には誇りを持っている。ゲイとレスビアンを認めたこと(当時は稀なこと)障害者への学びのプログラムを始めた事等だ。

博士は一世の父と二世の母を持ちナショナルシテイ(National City)で誕生。自分の事をニ世半と呼ぶ。六人兄妹の長男でエンシニタス(Encinitas)やカルディス(Cardiff)地域で育った。そこで父はペパー、トマト、レタスをトラックから売る小作人で私の高校の日系人十二人程の国籍が無いため土地を持て無い中の一人だった。博士の青春は大統領の行政命令9066により中断された。

1942年2月19日に発令されたアメリカのある地域をミリタリーゾーンとする行政命令はフランクリンデラノルーズベルトにより署名された。12万人の日本人、日系人が十ヶ所の西部地域で強制収容された。命令は19日に調印され私は19日には一番大きいアリゾナのポストン収容所にいた。2個の手荷物だけが許された。君だったら何を持っていく?と私は学生たちに質問したものです。私は13歳ですごい精神的衝撃となった。

キャンプの学校はひどかった。漫画に出てくるようなプラム色の顔色をした先生だったが日本の良い教育が受けられた。私はモータープールやマシーンショップでパートとして働きキャンプの外のパーカー(Parker)にも行った。体が大きかったので60kgの氷をキャンプへ送るように貨車にものせた。別の年にはスイカの収穫をし落とした時には中身を食べられのが良かった。

これまつフレッド氏のように9066の命令に抵抗した人もいた。キャンプ内でも沢山の静かな抵抗はあった。

色々あったが父が農民にならなくてもよいと言った日が博士にとって一番大きな出来事だった。私は教えられるが農耕は無理だった。

強制収容体験が1942年から1945年まであったが米軍に朝鮮戦争の時志願した。モンテレイにある防衛外国語学校で日本語をボルティモアで情報活動を学んだ。1950年4月から1952年6月まで日本で勤務した。北朝鮮が南朝鮮を侵略した時15人の隊の中で私は一人日本に残ることとなった。隊は北朝鮮により全滅された。本当にひどい時代だった。

1952年にカリフォルニアに戻りソーテルに定着した。両親はマクカラン、ウオルター条例により市民権を得土地を購買できた。Tanomoshikō という経済の日本人互助会が大いに助けになった。まだ買える場所に制限があり不動産屋は見せる場所に気ずかっていた。ポストンに移住した時両親は家や全ての物をメキシコ人の使用人に預けたが全てを失った。他の人々は銀行やレッドクロスに信任する事を知っていた。

エンシニタスの高校時代私は学校の劇でスターになるはずだった。それは成らなかったがバークレー校やスタンフォードで後一学期で卒業出来なかった学生たちの心痛は酷いものだった。若者全てにとって凄い精神的トラウマのある時代だった。

行政命令に対しての抵抗に関しては ジャパニーズアメリカンリーグはキャンプ行きを提唱他のグループは反対した。他の場所に移る人もいたが大変ではあった。一世は在米意欲が無くなり収容された12万人のうち国が補償金を払ったのは1990年生存者5,6万人でしょう。(他の数計は1.6ビリオンを82、219人の収容者やその家族に支払ったというものもある。)

ソーテルジャパンタウンに関しては長い間日系人の体験に関して思いをはせたが昨年ソーテルの日本協会歴史の語りべプログラムが始まり又若者達がこの地域の歴史的背景を組み入れたバーチュアルなソーテルジャパンタウンをつくろうと言う話がでた。同時に市議会に対して南北はサンタモニカからピコ東西はセンチネラから405フリーウェイに囲まれた地域をソーテルジャパンタウンとする旨を陳情した。市議全員一致で本件はきまった。

ソーテルジャパンタウンの発展に伴い博士はソーテルジャパンタウン近隣の日系人、日本人の貢献を知ってもらう事への努力と又1942年マンサナール(Manzanar)収容所へ送られる時の集合場所だった日本協会に記念碑建造を願っている。

変遷とともに街は混み合っている一方39ボーイスカウト,ベイシテイガードナーアソシエーション等は後退していると博士は語る。ソーテル日本協会と隣の二つの土地に住宅が建つ予定もある。博士の気持ちとしては 収容所に行った人々への記念碑建立、ソーテルブルバードにサクラなど植え地域を美化する事等地域住民が頑張り早急にやるべきと感じている。2007年博士著ソーテルジャパンタウンに記されているが地元民島原みよこ氏は1994年に桜の苗を日本より輸入しストーナーパーク(Stoner Park) の美化をはじめた。

月曜日は苦手だが富士本ジャック氏が特別な日にしてくれた。貴方の物語と歴史を共有させて頂きありがとうございました。

Joel Epsteinは作家、ビジネス、政府、非営利団体のコミニュケーションストラテジスト。彼はロスアンジェルス、ウエスト中心に書く。彼の情報はjoelepstein.com.。